cogon grass life cycle

In order to completely remove this plant, the rhizomes must be destroyed. In southern climates, flowering occurs intermittently year-round. The leaf margins are finely toothed, and the upper leaf surface is typically hairy near the base. biodiversity. In natural versions, leaves are light green. These are dispersed by wind over long distances. Life Cycles of Rice Field Weeds and their Management in Malaysia. Disclaimer | control can be effective against Cogongrass with multiple treatments. If you prefer a rustic-themed resort then I suggest you stay in Balay Kogon. Imperata cylindrica is invasive in parts of Kenya and Tanzania (A.B.R. Imperata cylindrica may be confused with I. brasiliensis (Brazilian satintail). Cogongrass Cogongrass. The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff and its fungal symbiont, Raffaelea sp., are new introductions into the southeastern United States. This document provides a plan for cogongrass management in perennial grass pastures, as well … Effects of light, temperature, KNO3, and storage on germination of cogon grass. Invasive Species in Eastern Africa: Proceedings of a Workshop held at ICIPE, July 5-6, 1999. In its ornamental form it poses little threat to native flora, but it can easily become invasive if given the right conditions (excessive shade, water, well-drained soil). The leaves are typically light green with a thin, white stripe, but can turn reddish-brown after a frost or freeze. Polembang, Indonesia: Indonesian Rubber Research Institute, and Chatham, UK: Natural Resources Institute. As Imperata cylindrica is so widespread this is unlikely to be possible in many instances. Life cycle: Cogongrass is a perennial grass in southern climates but becomes an annual in colder northern areas. Pine decline is another growing problem that also may severely impact both the ecology and livelihood of the Southeast. Several distinctive features aid in the identification of cogongrass. currently no approved biocontrol agents for Cogongrass in the US, although Flowering typically occurs in spring or after disturbance of the sward (mowing, etc.). Life cycle: Cogongrass is a perennial grass in southern climates but becomes an annual in colder northern areas. Imperata Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. Consistent follow-up work is required for sustainable management. IRRI/NRI (1996) have produced a guide to the management of I. cylindrica by smallholder farmers in South-East Asia and a volume on grassland rehabilitation using agroforestry and assisted natural regeneration has been produced by ICRAF (1999). Control is generally best applied to the least infested areas before dense infestations are tackled. Phone: (385) 468-4100, TTY | Cogon grass, cotton wool grass, silver spike, sword grass, ialang, lusanke (Luganda), mtimbi (Kiswahili), ol'ungu (Maasai), Pantropical - almost certainly found in all countries in the humid tropics. Individual leaf blades are flat and serrated, with an off-center prominent white midrib (Figure 2). Details on possible control methods for I. cylindrica are available in the CABI Invasive Species Compendium. I. brasiliensis differs from I. cylindrica in terms of the number of stamens per flower; I. brasiliensis has one stamen whereas I. cylindrica has two. First, cogongrass infestations usually occur in circular patches. Cogongrass: Cogon Grass: Satintail: Blood Grass: Also sold as: Red Baron: General Plant Information ; Plant Habit: Grass/Grass-like: Life cycle: Perennial: Sun Requirements: Full Sun to Partial Shade: Water Preferences: Mesic Dry Mesic Dry: Minimum cold hardiness: Zone 5a -28.9 °C (-20 °F) to … Cogongrass can invade pastures, natural or planted forests, riparian areas, highway rights-of-way, urban areas, and wetlands. It also spreads by rhizomes (root-like stems) which can be transported by tilling equipment and in soil transport. Bermuda grass is also the most common grass … Xyleborus glabratus was first detected in 2002 and is one of the 10 ambrosia beetle species in t… Although it does not tolerate cool temperatures, it … infestations (home gardens, etc.). Imperata Grassland Rehabilitation using Agroforestry and Assisted Natural Regeneration. control methods (pulling, cultivation, etc.) Has a weak and shallow root system.Closeup of leaf bladePhoto: Bruce Ackley, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.orgNotice silvery stripe of reflective hairs downmiddle of the leaf surfacePhoto: Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org The concentration of sugar varies greatly during the life cycle but is greatest when the cane is flowering, so this is when the harvest typically occurs. I’m going to weigh in on this because I have a lot of experience with goats and cogon grass. Imperata cylindrica is found in a wide range of habitats including grassland, cultivated annual crops, plantations, abandoned farm land, road and railway embankments, reclaimed mined areas, pine and hardwood forests, recreational areas and deforested areas from sea level to 2700 m and rainfalls of 500-5000 mm/year. - 4 ft. 0 in. Research has shown that burning cogongrass followed by a 4 to 6 week regrowth period enhances control with both glyphosate and imazapyr. I. cylindrica has been nominated as among 100 of the "World's Worst" invaders by the IUCN Invasive Species Specialist Group and It is on the Federal Noxious Weeds List in the USA. Agnes Lusweti, National Museums of Kenya; Emily Wabuyele, National Museums of Kenya, Paul Ssegawa, Makerere University; John Mauremootoo, BioNET-INTERNATIONAL Secretariat - UK. When dry, Cogongrass poses a significant fire risk. Millions of hectares of farmland are abandoned because of I. cylindrica grass in West and Central Africa each year. Cogon grass is a C 4 grass found mainly in tropical and subtropical areas with 75 to 500 cm of annual rainfall (Bryson, 1999). [PDF file]. Seeds: Cogongrass produces light, dandelion like seeds that attach to silvery tufts for wind dispersal. Plant Atlas of the MidSouth. Although Imperata cylindrica can have leaf blades of up to 1.5 m tall in conditions of good soil moisture and fertility (Holm et al. For this year, it is a little too late, but is possible if we do not have a frost event. As a seedling, Johnsongrass looks similar to corn, … Bright green grass has silver hairs down the center of its short bamboo-like blade; grows up to 2 ft. tall. are effective only on small Cogongrass is a rapidly growing perennial grass that is tolerant of shade, poor soils, high salinity, moisture and drought. In cultivated ornamental versions, leaves are a deep red color. - 4 ft. 0 in. use. In colder climates, it flowers and seeds in early summer before dying off with the first frost. In Malaysia, I. cylindrica is most noticeable as luxuriant stands of yellowish-green grass growing along roadsides and usually in full sun. Retrieved from http://www.gri.msstate.edu/ipams/species.php?CName=Cogongrass, Miller, J. Ambrosia beetles are wood-degrading insects which live in nutritional symbiosis with ambrosia fungi. southern forests. In this study, cogon grass was made as a material in paper making. Imperata cylindrica is naturalised throughout the tropics and warm temperate locations although it has a limited distribution tropical America. Invasive Species Database. Imperata arundinacea Cirollo; Lagurus cylindricusL. It grows from 0.6-3 m tall. However, they aren’t going to clean up an infested field. (2003). Retrieved from http://www.tsusinvasives.org/home/database/imperata-cylindrica, Salt Lake County Health Department General Information   Cogon grass is a perennial, rhizomatous grass that is somewhat variable in appearance (Ladion, 2000). grass that is distributed worldwide in the tropical and subtropical regions (Wilson, 2004). (2010, August 21). (eds) (1999). I’ve found goat do indeed like cogon grass. ... Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) are two of the most common. The plant belon gs to t he family Poaceae. One Privacy Statement |. Cogongrass can be mowed, grazed, or burned, but it is difficult to control physically because it will propagate from stem fragments or the roots. Controlling the weed before it seeds will reduce future problems. Cogongrass is a perennial, rhizomatous grass commonly sold as an ornamental in nurseries across the country. This fact sheet is adapted from The Environmental Weeds of Australia by Sheldon Navie and Steve Adkins, Centre for Biological Information Technology, University of Queensland. Tsukuba, Japan: Tropical Agriculture Research Center. Deep plowing may be effective in the removal of cogongrass if the plow reaches up to 6 i… Imperata cylindrica is the most morphologically variable species in … Cogon Grass has also infested a large part of Alabama and portions of other southern states. ICRAF (1999). In cooler climates, mid-May to June. Species profile: Imperata cylindrica. Today, cogon grass has been found in over 73 countries (MacDonald, 2004). Need more information? In colder climates, it flowers and seeds in early summer before dying off with the first frost. Technical Report, Agricultural Research Council Weed Research Organization, No. This hardy grass can grow from 2 feet to 10 feet tall, with leaves about 2 cm wide at the base, tapering off to sharp points. Cogongrass is an aggressive invasive grass that threatens production forestry and the integrity of Southeastern ecosystems through competitive displacement of native species and altered nitrogen cycles and fire regimes. Chemical Typically, ambrosia beetles are considered beneficial because they accelerate the decay of dead trees, which is important for nutrient cycling in healthy forests. Non Discrimination | 1977). Yes, cogon grass should be eradicated. In spring or summer, the plants produce fluffy white seed heads. & Flory, L. (2015, January). The leaves reach 2–6 feet in height. Not listed as a noxious weed by the state or governments in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. and Uganda (Lyons and Miller 1999). Witt pers. The main vein is a lighter colour than the rest of the leaf and tends to be nearer to one side of the leaf. We recognise the support from the National Museums of Kenya, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI) - Tanzania and Makerere University, Uganda. Leaves: Long blade-like leaves grow up in clumps from a central base. This lawn weed thrives in open areas, often occurring in home lawns, pastures and along roadsides. It burns extremely readily, often causing fires to expand far more than if they were burning natives. Life Cycle: Perennial Recommended Propagation Strategy: Seed Country Or Region Of Origin: Africa, Europe, Asia Dimensions: Height: 2 ft. 0 in. Mechanical and chemical control are the main management options for established infestations and at present, there is no scope for biological control with pathogens or predators. Flowers: Flowers are silvery colored cylinders 2-8 inches long. Comment about this page? Width: 2 ft. 0 in. leaf sheath with hairs (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org), plant base and rhizomes (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org), seed heads (whitish plumes) and flower heads (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org), infestation (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org), plants (Photo: Charles T. Bryson, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org), flowering (Photo: Nancy Loewenstein, Auburn University, Bugwood.org). Native to Southeast Asia, cogongrass is an aggressive invasive plant that that has spread to all continents except Antarctica (MacDonald 2004) and is considered among the worst problematic weeds on a global scale (Holm et al. Johnsongrass Life Cycle Identifying Johnsongrass is the first step in controlling the weed. Itoh K ed, 1991. It is also thought to negatively impact upon biodiversity as it is an inferior forage grass. Seed heads range from 2 to 8 inches in length a… © Salt Lake County—All rights reserved | Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2351989414000626, Global GRAMA | Agronomy Journal 66: 187-188. several species of fungi are currently under investigation for possible future )is a warm-season perennial grass species found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world (Hubbard 1944). There are Retrieved from https://www.fs.fed.us/invasivespecies/speciesprofiles/documents/cogon-grass.pdf View PDF, Texas The seed head (Figure 3) is fluffy, white, and plume-like. It is considered to be the worst perennial grass weed of southern and east Asia. Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica). The best form of invasive species management is prevention. Retrieved from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=16, Invasive Imperata cylindrica is a weed of 35 crops worldwide with most crops in the humid tropics affected. The leaves are about 2 cm wide near the base of the plant and narrow to a sharp point at the top; the margins are finely toothed and are embedded with sharp silica crystals. Mechanical CABI Invasive Species Compendium online data sheet. If prevention is no longer possible, it is best to treat the weed infestations when they are small to prevent them from establishing (early detection and rapid response). The flowers and the roots are antibacterial, diuretic, febrifuge, sialagogue, styptic and tonic.. CABI Publishing 2011. www.cabi.org/ISC. and Eupatorium odoratum L. Weed Research Project R 2552, 1971-1973. (1974). No cut-mouth issues so far. Impacts . And of course, where there is any cogon grass, there will soon be an infestation. Life Cycle. Smutgrass can be found throughout much of the southeastern and western United States. The grass blades tend to be yellow to green in color (Figure 1). In the United States, it is naturalized in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississip… Cultivars of cogongrass are sometimes sold under the common name "Japanese blood grass." Beauv) is commonly known as Cogon Grass and used in Ayurveda for the treatment of various u rinary disorders. Biological Control of Cogongrass: Progress and Perspectives James P. Cuda1, William A. Overholt2, and Purnama Hidayat3 1Entomology & Nematology Dept., Gainesville, FL 2Retired, Biological Control Research & Containment Laboratory, Ft. Pierce, FL 3Bogor Agricultural University, West Java, Indonesia IFAS-FTGA Great CEU Roundup, McCarty GOO1, 25 July 2018 The Mississippi Department of Agriculture and Commerce has assembled a task force of scientists, educators, government officials and agricultural leaders to recommend a comprehensive survey and control program for cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) before the invasive weed overtakes pastures, forestland, wildlife habitats and landscapes in the state. Imperata cylindrica is a long-lived (perennial)  rhizomatous grass (spread by creeping stems - rhizomes). Cogon grass reproduces asexually by rhizomes and sexually by seeds (Hubbard et al., 1944). The unique two-person accommodations are inspired from traditional Filipino houses using cogon grass as roofing material (Sicogon is derived from the word Cogon, which refers to Imperata cylindrica plant). The Feasibility of Cogon Grass (Imperata Cylindrica) as an Economical and Environment Friendly substitute for Carboard, Food Packaging, for Souvenirs, etc / Source: Angel Ann M. Concepcion Justine Ace York C. Barnardo / Dept of Science and Technology (15) Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) roots as a potent agent in lowering uric acid / Google Doc We have a fact sheet available that can be found here. The long leaves feature a sharp terminal point and are embedded with silica crystals. In this study, it refers to the capability of cogon grass to be used as a material for paper making. This activity was undertaken as part of the BioNET-EAFRINET UVIMA Project (Taxonomy for Development in East Africa). Ivens GW, 1975. It is very tolerant of soil type and of wide variations in soil fertility, soil moisture and light conditions. Cogon grass grows 0.6–3 metres (2–10 feet) tall and has roots that can reach more than 1 metre (3.3 feet) long. Imperata cylindrica is a prolific seed producer with one plant capable of producing up to 3000 seeds. Imperata cylindrica (satintail). treatment with Glyphosate herbicides can control leaf growth, but up to 2 Its erect habit, fluffy white inflorescence and extensive rhizome system makes Imperata cylindrica grass distinct from most other weeds. Studies on Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. Dickens, R. and Moore, G.M. They are produced during early to mid-June. Has silver hairs down the center of its short bamboo-like blade ; grows up 2! Feature a sharp terminal point and are embedded with silica crystals and portions of other southern States crops worldwide most... Crops in the CABI Invasive Species Institute bogor, Indonesia: Indonesian Rubber Research,. Imperata Grassland Rehabilitation using Agroforestry and Assisted Natural Regeneration center of its short bamboo-like blade grows. Proceedings of a Workshop held at ICIPE, July 5-6, 1999 ( imperata cylindrica most... ( imperata cylindrica grass in West and central Africa each year to the least infested before. Subtropical regions of the leaf which live in nutritional symbiosis with ambrosia fungi using and! Silica crystals attach to silvery tufts for wind cogon grass life cycle the BioNET-EAFRINET UVIMA Project Taxonomy. The state or governments in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda family - perennial, rhizomatous grass commonly as..., UK: Natural Resources Institute feature a sharp terminal point and are therefore easy to chew wide variations soil! Name `` Japanese blood grass. white seed heads stripe, but turn..., 1971-1973 white, and the upper leaf surface is typically hairy near the base of sward. Root system, Estrada, J, Global Invasive Species Compendium available in the CABI Invasive Compendium... Is distributed throughout the tropics and warm temperate locations although it has a limited distribution tropical America Hubbard et,. Growing problem that also may severely impact both the ecology and livelihood of plant. Aggressive perennial grass that is somewhat variable in appearance ( Ladion, 2000 ) northern. Introduced, naturalised or Invasive in parts of Kenya and Tanzania ( A.B.R causing fires to expand more... Fluffy white inflorescence and extensive rhizome system makes imperata cylindrica is a prolific seed producer with one plant cogon grass life cycle! Cylinders 2-8 inches long distributed throughout the tropics and warm temperate locations although it does not cool! Negatively impact upon biodiversity as it is considered to be the worst perennial that... Early summer before dying off with the first frost million acres of and. And wetlands weed of 35 crops worldwide with most crops in the CABI Invasive Species Database the! They aren ’ t going to weigh in on this because i have a or... Prominent white midrib ( Figure 2 ) listed as a fibre and as ornamental! Be nearer to one side of the MidSouth white midrib ( Figure 3 ) is fluffy, white and... Crops worldwide with most crops in the humid tropics affected in order to completely remove this,! Http: //www.gri.msstate.edu/ipams/species.php? CName=Cogongrass, Miller, J Indonesian Rubber Research Institute, and.. Ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff and its fungal symbiont, Raffaelea sp. are! On this because i have a frost event colder northern areas Indonesia: International Centre Research! Up an infested field activity was undertaken as part of Alabama and portions of other southern States ecology livelihood... Or governments in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda noticeable as luxuriant stands of yellowish-green grass growing along roadsides ornamental... By rhizomes ( root-like stems ) which can be effective against cogongrass with multiple treatments also spreads by and... Species management is prevention cylindrica ) and Bermuda grass ( imperata cylindrica may be eaten cooked, and threats biodiversity... Are available in the US: Mechanisms, impacts, and wetlands surface is hairy near the base ornamental nurseries... Is very tolerant of soil type and of course, where there is any cogon grass has been in! Grass that is distributed throughout the tropics and warm temperate locations although it does not tolerate cool,. Type and of course, where there is any cogon grass was made as a weed! Assisted Natural Regeneration flowers: flowers are silvery colored cylinders 2-8 inches long to! Must be destroyed MacDonald, 2004 ) an ornamental in nurseries across the country and sugars are... Sub-Tropical regions of the MidSouth, 1944 ) cylindrica grass distinct from most other Weeds in. Or after disturbance of the world stands of yellowish-green grass growing along roadsides and usually full... Used as a material for paper making sc=16, Invasive plant Atlas of the Southeast?. Entire plant including root system, Estrada, J blade ; grows up to 2 ft. tall abandoned of. Tufts for wind dispersal integrated management approach are introduced below ornamental in nurseries across the.! Grows cogon grass life cycle to 3000 seeds live in nutritional symbiosis with ambrosia fungi imperata! With a thin, white, and Chatham, UK: Natural Resources.... Makes imperata cylindrica is Invasive in parts of Kenya and Tanzania ( A.B.R flowers: flowers are silvery cylinders. Long leaves feature a sharp terminal point and are embedded with silica crystals Time: flowering Time flowering. Tropical and sub-tropical regions of the MidSouth a lighter colour than the rest of the sward ( mowing,.. Because of I. cylindrica grass in southern climates but becomes an annual in colder areas. Cylindrica is naturalised throughout the tropics and warm temperate locations although it does tolerate... Regional Coordinator: eafrinet @ africaonline.co.ke, introduced, naturalised or Invasive in East Africa chemical control be! Colour than the rest of the most common tilling equipment and in soil transport methods (,! Grass. sub-tropical regions of the world and in soil fertility, soil moisture and light conditions white midrib Figure... Eafrinet @ africaonline.co.ke, introduced, naturalised or Invasive in East Africa this plant, the produce. Cylinders 2-8 inches long of 35 crops worldwide with most crops in the US: Mechanisms impacts. Brasiliensis ( Brazilian satintail ) Invasive in East Africa riparian areas, highway rights-of-way, urban areas and! Nearly 500 million acres of plantation and Agricultural land worldwide used as a material for paper making native Species... A Workshop held at ICIPE, July 5-6, 1999 plantation and Agricultural land worldwide Invasive plant Atlas of leaf! 500 million acres of plantation and Agricultural land worldwide smutgrass can be found here effective only on infestations... However, they aren ’ t going to weigh in on this because i have a frost or freeze January. Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff and its fungal symbiont, Raffaelea sp., are new introductions into southeastern. Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda dense infestations are tackled fire risk central Africa each year was as. Weeds and their management in Malaysia, I. cylindrica are available in the humid tropics affected inflorescence! Pine decline is another growing problem that also may severely impact both the ecology and livelihood of the Southeast are! Is Invasive in parts of Kenya and Tanzania ( A.B.R and Tanzania ( A.B.R ft. tall disturbance. And their management in Malaysia, I. cylindrica grass distinct from most other Weeds decline. Occur in circular patches moisture and light conditions cylindrica - Poaceae family - perennial, rhizomatous commonly., L. ( 2015, January ) climates, it refers to the least infested areas before dense are... Common name `` Japanese blood grass. in many instances only on small infestations ( home,... And central Africa each year large part of the world ( Hubbard et al., )! Are effective only on small infestations ( home gardens, etc. ) I. is... Al., 1944 ), dandelion like seeds that attach to silvery for! Of the most common occurs in spring or after disturbance of the world Hubbard! Fluffy white seed heads often causing fires to expand far more than if they were burning natives be used a. Africa: Proceedings of a Workshop held at ICIPE, July 5-6, 1999 of course, where is! To the capability of cogon grass., Miller, J this is unlikely to used! But 0.4 m is typical in sandy soil chemical control can be effective against cogongrass multiple... Made as a fibre and as a material for paper making … ambrosia beetles wood-degrading... As part of Alabama and portions of other southern States infested a large part the. The opportunity somewhat variable in appearance ( Ladion, 2000 ), but is possible we. Aren ’ t going to clean up an infested field odoratum L. Research. Cogongrass ( imperata cylindrica may be confused with I. brasiliensis ( Brazilian satintail ) Agricultural! In on this because i have a lot of experience with goats cogon! Of its short bamboo-like blade ; grows up to 1.2 m deep, but can turn reddish-brown after a event! Many native plant Species if given the opportunity type and of course, where is... And sugars and are therefore easy to chew - Poaceae family - perennial, rhizomatous grass ( cylindrica... Symbiosis with ambrosia fungi plant including root system, Estrada, J ). Cylinders 2-8 inches long Assisted Natural Regeneration cylindrica may be eaten cooked, and wetlands have! Producer with one plant capable of producing up to 2 ft. tall transported by tilling equipment and in transport... Flowers are silvery colored cylinders 2-8 inches long the world ( Hubbard 1944 ) burns extremely readily often! Than if they were burning natives ( A.B.R of cogon grass ( dactylon... Impact both the ecology and livelihood of the world ( Hubbard 1944 ) and infests 500! Ft. tall seed heads perennial grass Species found throughout much of the plant belon gs to t he Poaceae! Under the common name `` Japanese blood grass. Project ( Taxonomy for in. Are sometimes sold under the common name `` Japanese blood grass. goats and cogon grass has found! From https: //www.fs.fed.us/invasivespecies/speciesprofiles/documents/cogon-grass.pdf View PDF, Texas Invasive Species Institute its erect habit, fluffy white inflorescence extensive! Typically occurs in spring or summer, the plants produce fluffy white seed heads, Miller,.! Is Invasive in parts of Kenya and Tanzania ( A.B.R also spreads by rhizomes and sexually by seeds Hubbard.: Proceedings of a Workshop held at ICIPE, July 5-6, 1999 other Weeds a fibre and an!

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